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Learning

Progressive overload

The concept of progressive overload is taken from the field of physiology and specifically from weightlifting and body-building. It is a very simple concept, and in its bare form it merely means: Do more over time. Muscles and other physiological structures in the body react to progressive overload by getting stronger and building better connections. If you can lift 40 kg with perfect form and ease and then add five kilos to the bar, you will be forced out of your comfort zone in order to do the repetitions with good form. Your muscles will react to the increase of labour with growing more muscle fibre and in a while, you will have become stronger.  

Progressive overload applied to learning

In applying the concept of progressive overload to learning, we assume that the same principle holds true for the brain’s capacity of growing new neurons and establishing denser and more connected neural networks.

There are some things you need to know though.

Your progress will not be linear. You will reach plateaus where you will feel stuck for a long time, no matter how much you practice, and then suddenly you will make a big leap and arrive at a new, better baseline. So, don’t panic if you feel you are not making any progress. Continue practising and eventually, the leap will come.

There is not one programme of how to implement progressive overload that fits all. How much you should stretch yourself depends on where your starting point is and cannot be prescribed in absolute terms, only relative to your own present capacities.

You will find your own starting point at the level where you can perform the task perfectly (or near to perfectly). In lifting weights it, among other things, involves you having achieved the correct body posture and can maintain it throughout the whole of the exercise. If you want to speed up your reading, first find out at what speed you manage near to 100% comprehension, minimalize subvocalization, do not go back and forth in the text while reading, and use optimal eye-movements. No matter what it means in words-per-minute-count, this is the baseline from which you should aim for progressive overload.

You should never aim at an overload so big that it does not allow you to perform the task as it should near-to-ideally be performed. Do not compromise on form. It will only lead to sloppiness and you will have to pay for the increase in performance on one aspect by loosing out on another.

Progressive overload can take many forms. In weight lifting you may, for instance, add more weight, you may aim for more repetitions of the same weight, or you may aim at setting higher standards for how perfect you perform the same weight and the same amount of repetitions. In reading, you may aim for higher comprehension with the same speed. You may try out a higher speed with retained comprehension or aim at perfecting your eye movements. Yet another way of applying progressive overload is to increase the difficulty of the texts you read in a certain genre or switch text genre altogether. You may aim at managing reading for a longer period of time with maintained focus. The main thing is that you aim for overload in one way or the other.

It is only through stretching yourself out of your comfort zone that you will grow and make progress in learning.

Progressive overload applied to reading

But how do I implement the principle in practice? Here are a few tips for improving your reading speed:

  • Use a metronome or a timer of some kind. For each tick or beep, you should read a page, or a section, or a paragraph, whatever the structure of your material is and you should set the speed of the metronome or timer a little faster than feels comfortable for you.  
  • Use an online reading app and work you way up through the progressive levels of difficulty, starting from where you get 100% comprehension and aim at getting the same level of understanding, not worrying about the speed but trying to keep it the same. Then start all over again and aim at increasing the speed for each level of difficulty, trying to keep the level of comprehension the same. Etcetera.
  • Sometimes “shock the system” by varying the intensity and volume of training drastically. Try to read at a much faster speed than you are able to, not worrying about comprehension. When you then go back to your own level of speed, you will probably find it easier than before. Or, once in a while, reduce speed radically when reading a text and focus instead on perfecting marker generation and eye-movements, not worrying about the speed. That will have a positive impact on your marker generation when you then go back to practising on your present level of speed.
Categories
Learning

Learning: Six must read books

Here is a list of the most highly recommended books on learning from the Coursera course “Learning how to learn — powerful mental tools to help you master tough subjects” with Barbara Oakley.

General books on learning:

Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential, by Barbara Oakley. Most books on learning tell you to follow your passion. This book shows you how you can broaden your passions and learn and do things you never dreamed you could do. It’s a book of inspiration, adventure, and scientific insight about learning, all wrapped into one.

Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise, by Anders Ericsson and Robert Pool. It gets at the heart of what it takes to become better at what you are trying to learn, and it provides solid encouragement and examples whether you are an 80-year-old trying to learn martial arts, or an 8-year-old learning the guitar. Ericsson is the best researcher around in the field of expertise, and Robert Pool (who has a doctorate in mathematics), helps work wizardry to make the book not only an incisive, but a fascinating read. Don’t miss this book.

The Art of Learning: An Inner Journey to Optimal Performance, by Josh Waitzkin. This is a wonderful book that looks at learning from a very different perspective than that of an academic. Waitzkin was a chess prodigy–his father, Fred Waitzkin, wrote the book Searching for Bobby Fischer, about his son’s exceptional talents. But Waitzkin is also a international martial arts champion. Waitzkin’s insights into the commonalities of both conventionally “athletic” and “mental” forms of learning is fascinating. Much of the discussion is highly relevant to many of the key ideas laid out in Learning How to Learn, including chunking and focused versus diffuse modes of thinking. Interestingly, a good time to attack in martial arts is when your opponent blinks–that momentary dip into the diffuse mode…

Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, by Peter Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark McDaniel. Henry Roediger’s world-class research and this book help you understand why and how to use approaches like spaced repetition, self-testing, and introducing difficulties into your learning can be helpful. It also explains common “illusions of competence” in learning like rereading and underlining.

The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning, by James Zull. Although this is an older book, first published in 2002, it holds a rich way of looking at how the brain works that stands the test of time. Zull is a Professor of Biology and Biochemistry at Case Western University as well as being the Director of the University Center for Innovation in Teaching and Education, and Professor of a Human Learning and The Brain class. He gives a penetrating perspective on how learning takes place that can add insight to not only your own ability to learn, but to your teaching.

Best Books for Teachers

Teaching and Learning STEM: A Practical Guide, by Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent. Although this book is geared towards STEM, it’s also a great resource for teaching well in any discipline.

Categories
Learning

Embodied Rituals

Learning is not just for the mind. It is very much a thing for the body as well.

EMBODIED COGNITION AND MIRROR NEURONS

It is a well-known fact that using multiple senses can improve learning. Associating a word or a name with a certain smell or image will bring the concept back to mind more easily.

The proprioceptive sense

But did you know that we besides the well-known five senses (smell, sight, hearing, touch and taste) also have a sense that keeps track of where our different body parts are located in three-dimensional space, in relation to each other and in relation to the surroundings? It is called the proprioceptive sense. At the ligaments, sensory bodies are located that report their coordinates to the brain. That is what enables you to make your thumbs meet (or not…) with your eyes closed.

As all senses, the proprioceptive sense can be trained to become more finetuned. That a potter can feel how thick the wall is on a vase she is working on just by holding her fingers on each side of the wall is not magic, it is a well-trained perception.

Dancers make use of this sense. You use it when walking in a dark room and blind people often have a highly developed sense of where their body is located in space.

Mirror neurons

Another fact that has revolutionized our way of understanding ourselves is the discovery of mirror neurons. We now know that even abstract concepts are linked to bodily movements and can be activated by simulating or enacting the same movement.

In this article, we shall see how these findings can be useful for anyone who wants to optimize their learning strategies. But first, we shall learn in some more depth about embodiment, embodied cognition and mirror neurons.

Watching or imagining a bodily action take place activates partly the same neurons in your brain as if you had performed the action with your own body. Thanks to the mirror neurons we are allowed to experience bodily movements that we merely perceive as if we were performing the movements ourselves.

Ever since researchers accidentally discovered how the brain of a macaque looking at one of the scientists who were reaching for a banana activated neurons for hand movements even though the macaque was immobile, research on human mirror neurons has been intense and debated. In cognitive embodiment theory, mirror neurons have been linked to the higher functions of man, such as empathy, the ability for language and awareness of other minds (theory of mind), and researchers have worked to show how motor activity underlies these functions.

According to cognitive embodiment theories, action and simulation of action share the same brain substrate. That is, when we simulate an action (witness it, read about it, remember it, fantasize about it), the brain partially re-activates the same areas that were activated in the original action along with the associated thoughts and feelings. It is also believed that abstract concepts emerge from our bodily experiences and constitute embodied abstraction. Therefore, we can understand and remember abstract concepts both through our own experiences and through simulation.

Mirror neurons wash away guilt (!)

As an example, we can take the cluster of abstract concepts encompassing forgiveness, guilt and purity. Here we can see relatively unproblematically what concrete experiences the abstract concepts are based on, namely the experience of becoming physically unclean and then cleaning the body from the impurity. Both the everyday act of being cleansed of dirt and the more abstract concept of being purified, forgiven or ritually cleansed of one’s guilt are embodied in concrete acts and rituals such as washing, rinsing off, erasing, baptizing, undergoing ritual baths or immersing oneself in the river Ganges.

A scientific study has shown how the physical act of washing one’s hands reduces the feeling of guilt more than watching a video of someone else washing their hands, which in turn reduces the feeling of guilt more than watching a video of someone who types on a keyboard.[1] Washing one’s own hands is a bottom-up process, where sensory and motor experiences activate the abstract notions of purity and forgiveness. Seeing someone else wash their hands, on the other hand, is a top-down process where the brain through its mirror neurons simulates comparable sensory and motor experiences. In both cases, the feelings of guilt are reduced, but in the latter case, as the brain relives or simulates the experience of washing the hands, only some of the neurons activated in the original experience are reactivated, so the effect is lower. The study is just one of many that show that you can actually reduce your feelings of guilt by washing your hands.

The purpose of bringing up this study here is to illustrate and support the theory on how abstract concepts can be linked to embodiment and thus provide the theoretical basis for recommending incorporating bodily practices in your learning skill toolbox.

RITUALS

Talking about rituals may bring religion to mind, but rituals are everywhere. You probably have a morning ritual that perhaps includes taking a shower and having a cup of coffee, or if you have children, they have a bedtime ritual that you need to follow strictly for them to feel safe and fall asleep easily.

What is a ritual?

Rituals, that is actions happening in the same order, occurring with the same intervals and having the same purpose and meaning, make us feel secure and comfortable. Everyday rituals often allow us to save mental energy by doing things routinely without having to think about what to do next. I don’t have to spend time and energy in the evening to make up my mind whether I should brush my teeth before going to bed or not; I just do it.

However, rituals can also be very focused and anything but a routine thing. If your morning ritual includes a time for meditation you have a ritual that makes you concentrate and focus your mind rather than letting it wander aimlessly. A mindful ritual can serve as a means to preparing your mind for a study period, a meeting, a creative writing session, or whatever you want to do next, by getting your mind in the right mode for the activity in question. A brain in a diffused mode would be the best for creative inventive activities, a brain in a focused mode would be the best for a study session.

Creating your own rituals

If you wish to create a ritual for a certain purpose, say for initiating a study session, the more vivid and embodied you can make the ritual, the better. If you then make it a habit of performing the ritual every time you are about to start a learning session, this will prime your brain and tell it that a learning session is coming up. You will then be able to embark on your session with a more focused and receptive mind than if you had rushed into it with no preliminaries.

When I wrote my thesis — a lonely work which I mostly had to carry out in my bedroom — I had a very simple ritual to get me started every day. Each morning after having switched on my computer I played one online card game. No more and no less. Then I would open my dissertation file and start working on it. As rituals are sort of addictive, the desire to complete another game made me want to turn on my computer. With the computer already up and running and me sitting in front of it, the step to begin the day’s real work on my dissertation had been reduced to a manageable size. I am certain that had I not had that morning ritual, the step would many days have seemed more like a giant leap to me and procrastination would have been all too easy.

My dissertation ritual did its job and I am grateful for that. But today, when I am older and hopefully slightly wiser, I have higher standards for my rituals.

A well-designed ritual

Firstly, I want the ritual to be valuable in itself, not only lure me into something of value. The intrinsic value of a ritual may be that it is beneficial to your physical health, that it contributes to your mental or psychological well-being, that it enhances the quality of your relations, that it furthers your spiritual path or that it benefits the wider community or the entire world.

Secondly, I  want the ritual to be optimally effective, not just enough to do the trick. For a ritual to be optimally effective it should draw on as many senses as possible and involve a multitude of bodily motions. The more embodied the ritual is, the more neural pathways it will activate and thus the easier it will be to associate it with other things, and the more tailored it can be made to your needs.

Taken all together, a well-designed ritual is one that

  • has a low entry threshold and is easy to perform even if you are tired or not in the mood,
  • has an addictive aspect in that it gives you satisfaction,
  • is recognizable and repeatable,
  • has intrinsic value, and
  • involves several senses and the whole body in motion.

Such a ritual will provide the safe anchor you need to get going when you otherwise might have tended to tarry and procrastinate. Once in place, a well-designed ritual can additionally function as the foundation on which to stack other good habits.

What kinds of rituals involve the whole body in motion?

Practices such as yoga, dance, the Japanese tea ritual and many religious rituals (kneeling, prostrating, lifting hands) are prototypical. Elements from practices such as these are valuable components when designing your own rituals.

For more than a year I benefitted greatly from this morning ritual: First thing out of bed, I danced with free movements to the music “What a wonderful world” to stretch and awaken my body and get my mind in a positive and relaxed state. I then did my yin-yoga program and continued with a sitting meditation starting with a body scan and followed by focusing on my breathing. Finally, I put on the kettle and brew a cup of tea and curled up crosslegged in my favourite easy chair with my diary to plan the day, decide on my focus and write down any reflections.

DANCING RITUALS

To dance means involving the whole of the body in coordinated synchronized movements, either spontaneous or choreographed, to the rhythm and tunes of music or plain rhythm, for instance from drums.

If one widens the concept of dance, as the philosopher and dancer Kimerer L. LaMothe suggests, one could argue that dance, that is, our physical being in motion, is the source and goal of human life, culture, religion and philosophical thinking. According to LaMothe, dance can be any movement or activity that meets the following criteria: 1) it contributes to our bodily ego, 2) it shifts our sensory experiences, and 3) it is performed with conscious attention to what we with our movements create and become. “What I am calling ‘dance’ happens when we consciously engage our sensory awareness as a guide to participating in the rhythm of bodily becoming.” [LaMothe 2015] She argues that matter, evolution, and knowledge are essentially movement.

If correct, this makes dance a potential goldmine for dedicated super learners in search of resources.

Dancing has been a basic expression in humankind for as long as we have been human. Many anthropologists even assume that religion and culture once originated through dance. Dancing together bonded the small group of hunters and gatherers, embodied the group’s values ​​and life context, provided group security and identity, and provided the opportunity to express questions and feelings of existential nature, feelings of wonder and fear of the greatness of nature, the mystery of life, birth, etcetera. One could say that the existential questions of life and curiosity itself were originally danced long before they were formulated in language. The dance later evolved into other types of rituals and cultural expressions that codify the group’s values ​​and belief systems.

Since dances embody their surrounding culture one can gain a cultural and linguistic understanding that is in no other way available by dancing traditional dances.

Building on sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s thoughts on ‘habitus’,[2] anthropologist Ted Polhemus argues that dance constitutes a crystallization of the more general bodily culture in which the dance occurs.[3] The dance thus functions as a reinforcement and mediation of an underlying cultural identity. Through dance, the dancer gains entry and insight into a culture that is foreign to him or her in a more profound and bodily way than just by reading about the culture. This is because the dance expresses the cultural habitus that usually remains unformulated and therefore not always is to be found in textbooks.

Learning a new language involves learning to think in new ways, using perhaps unusual categories, as languages reflect the conceptual structures important in the cultures they belong to. Language embodies the habitus of culture in much the same way as dances do. So by dancing the dances of a culture one may also become a better language learner by grasping those subconscious subtle nuances that are so difficult to get at.

One might argue that dance functions in a similar way as a religious ritual. The dance as a ritual conveys, reinforces and expresses meaning and culture through bodily movements and patterns of movement, both in the individual dancer and in the dancing group as a whole. Above all, this applies to such meaning and culture that cannot (or at least not easily) be conveyed through words and thoughts, but which are nevertheless essential for religious identity and understanding.

How come bodily movements performed in rituals, which may or may not be danced, are so fundamental in conveying meaning? Dance is the form of ritual that engages most of the body and the whole body is used for movement. Vision, hearing, feeling and the proprioceptive senses are all active. The dance also often requires a focused consciousness. Since dance is often a collective affair, the social body is also activated in that each individual dancer must relate to the bodies of others and to the spatial space.

Religious dance can take many expressions. Temple dancers in India dance sacred rituals, highly stylized dances that embody Hindu sacred texts. The dancing Sufic dervishes in Islam swirl hour after hour in a dance which in itself is considered a prayer and contact with God. In the Church of Sweden, dance masses are celebrated, where the entire congregation participates in ring dances that embody the various parts of the mass. North American Native American shamans dance into another world. In Africa, myths and prayers are danced in countless local religions. Judaism has been dancing ever since Miriam led the Israelite women in dance after the Egyptians drowned in the Red Sea.

HOW DOES DANCING APPLY TO LEARNING?

If you study, you might want to consider learning a specific dance or dancing to a specific tune of music each time you begin to study a certain subject and end the study period with dancing the same piece. This will associate the subject area you are studying with the dance in question and provide an anchor to what you have learnt.

In the dance before the study session, you should focus on dancing your aims, questions, your desires and your frustration, that is, your feelings, emotions and urges that drives you to study. Get it all out in the open so that when you sit down to study, your body is relaxed and your emotions have been released.

In the dance after the study session, you should try to embody the gist of what you have learnt/studied. If you do free spontaneous dancing, use the full potential of your body to mimic key concepts and visual markers that have stood out for you during your reading. Make the post-study-dance into a recall- and revise session in itself. If you use the Pomodoro method, a dance is a perfect activity for the long break that you get after a few Pomodoros.

Then, when you switch to another study subject, you also switch dance and/or music. Try to pick something that resonates with what you are studying in its energy, emotional load and pace. 

An additional benefit from using dance to enhance your learning is that in this way you get some well-needed exercise amidst all sitting down.

USING DANCE FOR REVISION AND SPACED REPETITION

Let the different dances /music tunes you have associated with the various study subject/themes unfold and while you let your body loose in the dance you let your mind loose too and go over your material (as you have memorized it, in a mind-map, by visual markers, etc). The connections already made will be strengthened and the neural pathways are reinforced for each time that you dance.

Maybe you will notice that when you forget something and have to pause in your mind to find the correct term or explanation or gloss, you have a tendency to freeze your body and stop dancing as well. This is how closely connected your body is to your thinking activities. Try instead to carry on dancing and let the answer come to you in the movement. If the answer still does not come, then go back and review when your next study session begins, and bring it into the dance.

I remember when I wrote a paper back att graduate school. It was about the ancient history of Israel, and each time I sat down to my typewriter to write up the summaries of the literature I was covering, I put on a tape with Chinese flute music. The music started slow and then went faster and faster. I would end up typing away at a frenetic speed and when the music came to an end I was panting and only then would I realize that I had increased my typing speed along with the music.

Even to this day, I cannot hear this kind of Chinese music without feeling myself transported back thousands of years to the sandy origins of the Israelites in the Middle East.


[1] Hanyi Xu, Laurent Bègue och Brad J. Bushman, ”Washing the guilt away: effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial  ibehavior” In Frontiers in Human Neuroscience – Embodiment and the Human MNS, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00500, (March 2016) s. 87-91

[2] The idea of habitus is that there are meaningful practices / patterns of action / patterns of movement / ways of interpreting the perceptions shared by members of the same group / culture and which members adopt without really being aware of it. See Pierre Bordieu, Distinction. A social critique of the judgment of taste, (London: Routledge, 1984) (original 1979).

[3] Ted Polhemus, “Dance, gender and culture ”, in Routledge Dance Studies Reader, ed. Alexandra Carter, (New York: Routledge, 1998) pp. 171-189.

Categories
Learning

Spaced repetition

Once you have learned something you don’t want to forget it. In order to secure the knowledge in your mind, you need to review it. But not too often, for that is a waste of energy, and not too seldom, for then you will have forgotten some of the information already.

You will want to space your repetitions properly to ensure that information is retained over the long term. From a look at the forgetting curve below, you will understand the need for frequent repetitions early on as soon as you have learnt something and it also becomes clear that over time you need to review your material less often.

But what if you want to find out about the optimal intervals for doing your revisions? The easy way out is to use a software application that has already made all the calculations for you and simply in due time delivers the piece of information scheduled to be reviewed. You never have to know why and when, just review it whenever it pops up in your software app, one of the most popular free apps being Anki.

If you for any reason want to handle your spaced repetitions manually there are ways to do that. After all, that is what people had to do before the digitalization of culture. And getting the intervals right is important. If you review too seldom you will forget and maybe have to relearn it all. If you review too often, it is a waste of time.

Gwern offers an informative article on spaced repetition frequency, and the following graphs are from this website, with all due thanks.

Ebbinghaus’ original forgetting curve

Wozniak’s Supermemo take on dealing with the forgetting curve using a spaced repetition schedule.

In the Leitner system, which was devised in the 70s for doing spaced repetition efficiently, you have several boxes with cards. The boxes are reviewed at different intervals. Let’s say that the first box is reviewed once a day, the second every other day, the third box every fifth day and the fourth box once every fortnight. If you know the content of the card, you promote it to the next box. If you do not know the card, you degrade it to the box below. In this way, you are making certain that you are always reviewing only the cards that are the most difficult and that need reviewing.

In the Leitner system, correctly-answered cards are advanced to the next, less frequent box, while incorrectly-answered cards return to the first box.

(This illustration is taken from https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Leitner_system, with due thanks)

Maybe you want to look behind the scene, so to speak, and see how an actual spaced repetition algorithm looks like. To apply it yourself would take a lot of work, but if you are interested, you may read this article: https://www.supermemo.com/en/archives1990-2015/english/ol/sm2, taken from P.A.Wozniak, Optimization of learning, Master’s Thesis, University of Technology in Poznan, 1990 and adapted for publishing as an independent article on the web. (P.A.Wozniak, May 10, 1998).

And if you are really, really interested, you may want to have a look at the following article: https://supermemo.guru/wiki/Neural_networks_in_spaced_repetition

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Uncategorized

Pre-reading

When you read something that you want to learn from a textbook for college or an article that is of import to you, how do you go about it? If you are like most people, you start from the beginning, read every word and stop reading when you come to the end of the text. Maybe you go away with a feeling that what you have read was interesting, or that you will surely remember it later on. If you study for an exam, perhaps you return to the text several times and reread it in the same manner.

Like most people who read like this, you have probably been surprised at how little you remember when asked to actively recall what you have read. What you thought you knew when rereading the text was not as easily extracted from your memory when you didn’t have the text in front of you. This is because we trick ourselves to believe that we have learned something when, in fact, we have only learned to recognize it as being familiar.

What I suggest – together with thousand other teachers, educators, super-learners and speed-readers around the world – is that in order to learn and remember more efficiently, you should spend less time reading and more time pre-reading and reviewing (though not by way of re-reading the text).

What then is pre-reading?

Pre-reading is first and foremost a means to an end. And the end, the purpose, is to prime and prepare your brain to be more receptive when you later read the text.

Even before you begin to pre-read I suggest that you ask yourself some guiding questions. Why do you want to read this text? When and in what context and for what purpose are you going to use what you take away from the text? Is it for an exam, a presentation at work, to impress friends at the next party, to add to your mental encyclopedia on a certain topic, or what? Maybe you want to gather information to be able to make an informed decision about something.

Depending on the purpose of your reading, decide on what level of detail you want to be able to recall and what exactly you want to commit to long term memory. Do you want to be able to recall specific dates and details, names and numbers, or is it enough if you can recall the big picture and the conclusions? Are you interested in the analyses made, or in the facts? In all of it, or only a subdomain of the main topic?

And how long do you want to remember what you read? Do you want to keep it forever in memory, or is it sufficient if you remember it until the next staff meeting? Depending on your answers, you will read the text differently and some sections you may not want to read at all.

When you are clear about your purpose, begin with surveying the text (the book, or the chapter, or the article), just spending a few seconds per page. Note any headings, figures, images, italics, textual structures and anything that sticks out or arouses your curiosity. Anything that generates interest, curiosity and engagement with the text is good.

After each page (or natural chunk of text), look away from the text and try to recall a few items that stuck in your short term memory. See if you can make them into something memorable, fancy images that could represent the key points in the text, or the rudiments of a mindmap, for instance.

Questions to ask

As you pre-read the text, try to come up with questions that will make you want to read the text in detail to find out more, questions that will make your brain interested. I use the acronym FM-COPE to remind myself of all the different kinds of questions I could ask.

F: Factual questions: Who invented? Where did it take place? When will it expire? What parts does it consist of? Which one is the most energy-efficient? How many are there? These are the kinds of questions that often first come to mind – and unfortunately, factual questions are also the most boring and least curiosity evoking sort of questions.

M: Meaning-related questions: What is the purpose of doing X? Why is it right/ wrong to do Y? Which is better, X or Y? What is the intrinsic value of X? Does Y have a meaning? Is there a God? What did the author mean by X?

C: Childish questions: Why is NN so stupid? Why do farts smell? When will you die? Is God heavy?

O: Out of the box questions: What is the colour of number five? Does the dog look forward to its birthday? What would happen if I used X as a Y?

P: Perspectival questions: Ask questions from different perspectives, for instance, if the topic is a bookshelf: By what means can I reach the high shelf? (a child) What will happen if I break my hip while climbing the ladder to reach the high shelf, will I recover? (elderly) At what price can the shelf be sold? (salesperson) What is that smell coming from the shelf? (a dog) From what time period is the shelf? (designer) Am I willing to be persuaded by this text? (you) What would Yoda say about this argument? (Yoda/your client/boss/grandmother)

E: Emotional questions: What does it feel like to be eaten by a lion? What emotions does the text evoke? How do you make X desire Y? Is X depressed/happy?

All taken together, in a text about a battle you might ask questions like: If I were a child in the besieged city, how would I feel? If I were a woman, a soldier, a rich person? What would have happened if the other side had won? What grounds do I have to believe the details reported as facts in the text? How did they manufacture the weapons utilized? Who paid for that? How does it feel to be shot by an arrow? What are the chances of survival, and who cares for the injured? What is the purpose of the battle, long term and short term, and according to whom? Why didn’t they just let the generals have it out in a fistfight? Is war always wrong? Is killing sometimes justified, and then according to whom?

Now you are ready to begin reading the text.

  • You are curious to find out the answers to some specific questions you have come up with.
  • You have picked up roughly how the text is structured, perhaps that there will be three arguments supporting the conclusion, or that the text will give five examples of business structures, and so you have the skeleton of a mindmap by which to organize your notes.
  • You have created some visual images that will help you remember some of the content of the text.
  • You will have an inkling about which parts of the text will be less interesting for you and which are the parts where you will want to spend more time.

Thus prepared, you can begin to read, stopping now and again to create more visual markers and add to your mindmap whatever pieces of information or analysis that you want to take with you from the text into longterm memory storage.

When you have finished reading the whole text, take some time going over your notes and your mindmap to finetune and add to your visual images, notes and structure, now that you have it all fresh in mind. Time spent here will pay back manifold later.

Now all you have to do is to review your notes/mindmaps in spaced intervals so that you secure the information in your long term memory (for more about this, see the blog post about Spaced repetition).

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